Irrigation & land reclimation
Main Drain (Third River) historical back ground:
The draining of Mesopotamian Marshes
The Glory River (Nahar al-Aaz), Glory Canal or Prosperity Canal is a shallow canal in Iraq about two kilometers wide built by Saddam Hussein in 1993 to redirect water flowing from the Tigris river into the Euphrates, near their confluence at the Shatt al-Arab. It helped cause an environmental and humanitarian disaster since it diverted natural water flow from the Central Marshes and effectively converted much of the wetlands into a desert. After the First Gulf War, Saddam Hussein aggressively revived a program to divert the flow of the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers away from the marshes in retribution for a failed Shia uprising.[3
Iraq - Technical report on the Euphrates River flood control and irrigation projects in Iraq (English)
This report covers an analysis of the technical and financial aspects of three projects (see map attached) involved in the flood control and irrigation program for the development of the Euphrates River Valley in Iraq, the foreign exchange costs of which have been proposed as a basis for a loan from the Bank
Iraq Salinity Project Technical Report
The Iraq Salinity Project was created in 2010 to understand the current salinity crisis and improve livelihoods through sustainable use of available water and soil resources in central and southern Iraq. It aims to evaluate the economic impact of salinity and produce a “road-map” to manage the problem over a 15 year time frame.
This project determines the contribution of the various complex factors at play in the current low agricultural productivity in Iraq. The inefficiency of the irrigation and drainage system had contributed extensively to the degradation of physical infrastructure. Institutional capacity in the agricultural sector also needs to be upgraded along with intensified training for the Iraqi farmers.
Changes in soil and water characteristics
STUDY AND EVALUATION OF THE HYDROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
ABSTRACT This research deals with the hydrological and hydrochemical characteristics of Al-Massab Al-Aam channel(middle sector), which could be useful for the intended restoration efforts. Analyzing and interpreting the chemistry of water can provide valuable insights into surface water interactions. Major elements cations and anions(Ca+2 , Mg+2 , Na+ , K + , SO4 -2 , Cl-, CO3 -2 , HCO3 -), minor elements (NO-3, PO-3 4), and physical properties (pH, EC, TDS, temperature, color, odor, and TH). The Water discharge ranges between 88-220m 3 /s, and the average value is 169.5m 3 /s, while the water elevations above sea level ranges between 1.92-17.9 m and the average value is 8.35 m .The water samples are suitable for irrigation purposes according to the variables: SAR, Na% and RSC .
المشاريع الاروائية في جنوب العراق: رد على حملة اعلامية مغرضة
نعيد نشرها لكم: من موقع عشتار العراق
الأهوار عبارة عن منخفضات تقع في نهايات نهري دجلة والفرات تتجمع فيها كميات كبيرة من مياه النهرين المذكورين اثناء مواسم الفياضانات وتغطي تلك المياه مساحات كبيرة من الأراضي الزراعية في المنطقة وتؤدي الى ارتفاع المناسيب اما في مواسم الصيهود فتنسحب المياه عن بعض تلك المناطق مخلفة وراءها مستنقعات تكون بؤرا للعديد من الأمراض.
لقد ادت تغطية تلك المساحات الواسعة بالمياه الى عزل تلك المناطق وصعوبة الوصول اليها وبالتالي صعوبة تقديم الخدمات الضرورية اللازمة لتحسين بيئة السكان فيها وتردي الظروف البيئية في المنطقة بدرجة كبيرة.**
وضمن عملية تطويرمشاريع الري ودراسات تسليك مياه الفيضان والسيطرة عليها قدم العديد من الشركات الاجنبية التي كانت تكلف باجراء تلك الدراسات منذ بداية الخمسينات مقترحات عديدة لتطوير هذه المناطق من اهمه
TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN IRAQ
Nasiriyah Drainage Pump Station
The Nasiriyah Drainage Pump Station is a land drainage pumping station in Iraq 10km southeast of Nasiriyah in the province of Dhi Qar. The station pumps farm run-off collected by the Main Outfall Drain (MOD) north of the Euphrates River in Dhi Qar and Muthanna provinces to a siphon under the Euphrates where it is then returned to the MOD and eventually discharged in the Persian Gulf. The pump station relieves water back-up and is a critical component of a larger agricultural drainage system designed to drain 1.5 million hectares of land in order to reduce soil salinity. Consisting of 12 pumps, each with a 20 m³/second (316,000 gal/min) capacity, it is the largest drainage pump in the Middle East.
n 1951, British engineer Frank Haigh developed his Haigh Report for the Iraqi government which laid out drainage infrastructure for the Mesopotamian Marshes in order to reclaim the land for agriculture. His report recommended a complex of canals, sluices and dikes on the lower portions of both the Tigris and Euphrates. In 1953, construction began on the Main Outfall Drain, also known as the Third River, which would drain water from the Central Marshes through a canal and eventually into the Persian Gulf. Construction on the Nasiriyah Drainage Pump Station, which would serve to pump the water to a siphon under the Euphrates, did not begin until 1983. A Brazilian contractor worked on the pump station until 1986 when political upheaval forced a construction halt. Construction continued in 1992, the same year the MOD was completed, but was intermittent until 1999 because of flooding and structural failures. Aside from agriculture, the MOD was viewed as a tool for Saddam Hussein to drain the Central Marshes in order to deny a refuge for Shia Muslims after the 1991 uprisings in Iraq.